My X-52 has been a real pain in the butt in Windows 10. It’s hit or miss if after a reboot the joystick is going to be detected by Windows. Attempting to re-run the driver installer doesn’t help. I found the following tip at the Windows Support site and seems to do the trick.
I finally found a Solution, when I try to load the driver and it gets to the point that it asked me to plug in the device I went to the device manager and when it asked me to install the driver I clicked “browse my computer” then”let me pick from a list” from there it gave me 3 choices, 2 of them were X52 Controllers, the 3rd was a generic USB device, I selected the Generic Device and then the Saitek Driver installer was able to finish its installation